Tuesday, November 13, 2012

Inspirations - Robert Liberace

Robert Liberace is a contemporary artist who also uses hatching in his drawings and paintings.  He is a master of drawing and an expert on anatomy.  First, lets take a look at this 4 minute video on YouTube which will show what pages of text could not adequately explain. Yes, he draws at the speed shown.  Obviously the image is in his mind in extreme detail and his hand just tries to keep up.  His sketches in oils follow a similar technique of hatching, cross hatching and scrubbing the brush as he does with a pencil or charcoal.

He also does sculpture and very finely finished paintings.  The following 4.5 minute video gives an example of his latitude of materials.  The pen and ink with wash sketch at the end is delightful.

For a detailed biography see Robert Liberace

My drawing in black and white Conte
influenced by Prud'hon and Liberace (2006)

Tuesday, October 23, 2012

Inspirations - Pierre-Paul Prud'hon

Pierre-Paul Prud'hon was a French Romantic painter and a superb draftsman.  1758 - 1823. At the height of his profession, he worked for wealthy Parisians which led him into the court of Napoleon. For a more details on his life, see Getty Museum.

It is his remarkable drawings which impressed me.  He took a scholastic drawing technique and developed it throughout his entire career instead of leaving it at school.

Left: Image of museum document showing discoloring and fading of the paper.
Right: Restored and enhanced enlargement showing the detail of the strokes.

The technique uses a middle value blue, laid paper with black and white chalk hatching.  Unlike most cross hatching, he draws his lines parallel to the surface adding description of the direction of the slope of the surface.  He also uses an under value of smudged black or white to enhance the values with the hatching drawn over it.  Some areas are solid black as in the deepest recess of the arm against the body, the eye lashes, and particular areas of the hair.

Also notice the second lighting source from the left at mid level which gives form to the otherwise shaded and shadowed areas. Lighting the figure from both sides accentuates the shapes within the form.  In the enlargement at the right the subtle definitions of the musculature of the back and shoulder are accurately rendered with the delicate highlights and a gradation of shades.

What amazes me most of all is the exquisite and accurate drawings.  Back then it was called draftsmanship.  Also, the amount of time required to execute the drawing and the patience of the model was remarkable.  The paper size is estimated at 22" x 15" based upon museums which give sizes of his other drawings.

For more of his drawings and paintings see Humanities Web.

For details and lessons on the production of his drawings see Rebecca Alzofon's Studio

The links above are given as those sites give a more detailed description of their areas of interest. 

My two drawings below have been influenced by Prud'hon but not replicating his exact style. If I put more time into the drawing as did Prud'hon, the results would have been more detailed and finished.

Conte pastel pencils with hatching. (2007)
Conte crayons and pastel pencils with hatching, linear and cross except for the hair. (2007)

Sunday, September 30, 2012

Topographic Photography

Having been an avid photographer for about 40 years, straight documentation photography seemed very static.  Having looked at topographic maps frequently as an architect one can see the contour lines generated with stereo photography and occasionally using field survey measurements and interpolation.

A topographic map is a series of parallel planes intersecting a shape.  The points of intersection are drawn showing the shape of the surface.

To apply this technology in photography, a source of parallel planes of light is needed. I have seen many photographs using the light and shadows of venetian blinds to wash over the subject.  However to achieve the topographic lines the bands of light need to be almost perpendicular to the form and the lines parallel to the surfaces.

To get this source of lighting, parallel lines were generated in Adobe Illustrator. Different space and line widths produced varying results.

These patterns are projected from a digital projector at right angles and parallel to the subject and adjusted for best results and focus.  The studio work at the time was figure drawings and paintings.  Photography was used to capture model images for painting.  Hence models were used for the experimentation of topographic photography.

Improved angle comes with experimentation. 2008

Developing angle and pose

Much better angle and pose for the contours.

The work has developed since this image but these samples are sufficient for the explanation of the process.  More developed images can be found on in the section of Figures.

Sunday, September 9, 2012


When drawing, the question is: what to draw?  When finding something, how much of what you see will be in the drawing?  I call this my "Torment of the Blank Page."  The most common technique is using the "finger viewer" to block out everything except the selection.

Framing the composition with your fingers.
For a closer analysis of the composition, you can make a cardboard "L".  Use several "Ls" instead of fingers.  And then to really get serious, the fixed "Ls" give a particular view that will fit on the canvas or paper.  In the fixed sample below I used a ratio which I usually like and is a standard size in paper and canvas.

This is the front of the fixed "Ls" forming a 3 x 4 ratio subdivided into equal steps.
Initially there were red strings, where marked, to locate objects within the frame precisely.

This is the other side showing the paper sizes of this ratio of 1.33 (3 x 4).
There is a mark for another standard sizes at a ratio of 1.25 (4 x 5).

While looking at the potential subject, the frame can be rotated into the horizontal position if this looks better.  It can also be moved closer or further away from the subject to crop or expand the view.  When you select the composition, visually note where the four corners of the frame viewer appear on the subject.  Now it is selected.

To compose a drawing or painting it is important to look through the viewer and not only see the object but also the source and quality of the light on the subject.  What if you move a bit to either side?  How would the shadows and light improve the subject?  What about moving on the opposite side?

So with a good composition with wonderful lighting, look closely now, not at the subject, but at the background and foreground.  What is there that will detract from the work? See any telephone poles or wires running through your subject?  Especially check where a dark subject is against a dark background.  The distinction of the two blend into one.  This is particularly true in photography where the person's hair is dark and the background is dark or visa versa. The top of the head vanishes.  If sensitive to colors and their combinations, look at alternatives as well, especially in portraiture.

Photography is also one of my areas of interest. So far, I have not discussed the subject.  We will get to photography later on. Composition is important in all fields.

Drawing, painting and photography are all primarily about seeing carefully and in specific detail.

Sunday, August 26, 2012

Materials Selections

Having been trained as an architect, colors and textures of materials are very important.  Represented colors and textures in catalogs, photographs or computer screens give a general idea. To actually see the product live it is necessary to get a sample of the real thing or visit a building which uses that material.  The technical reproduction of reality is not reality.

I have file folders and 9" x 12" notebooks filled with samples of colors, printed and real as well as a varieties of papers and canvases for testing and recording. shows a color study of oil paints made for my observation of the real thing.  Below is the color sheet by Gamblin showing these colors.  The printed page is an idea of the colors but my sample board is the real thing.  Note: My photograph of the color study board is no better the Gamblin's printed brochure.  You must really see it live.
This image is a computer representation of a printing press image representing the real colors.

At one time during 2000 to 2002, Winsor & Newton sent actual painted samples of watercolors and gouache to see the real colors on real paper.  Luma also sent real samples of their liquid watercolor. You can ask.
When you see the real thing you will notice the difference.
The resolution of the computer screen just cannot do it.

 Pastels are the same if you ask the right vendor.  Dakota Pastels will send you all of the colors of a brand that they carry (very many) for a small fee.  I make my own samples of pastels that I use as the paper labels eventually come off or are removed to use the last nib of color.  Other brands carry a small embossed number on the stick. I prefer to have real samples so that I can buy items by the individual piece and not an entire set. 
My pastel color samples of real pastels are on the left, Dakota on the right

Getting real samples is not very difficult.  I sent Dick Blick a note asking for samples of Canson Mi-Teinte paper colors.  They sent a pack of 3" x 4" samples of all of the colors with labels on each one.  I use it to this day to order and get the correct color.   Another good place is New York Central Art Supply for actual samples of paper and canvas snips.  They carry a vast number of papers and will also will identify a sample of paper or canvas for you if they carry it, and they usually do.  Learning about the various materials will help for working on a particular project.
Test pieces of different makes and types of paper with various media samples.
I have about 20 paper samples like this.
I also like to see the effects of various colors on different background colored papers.  This is especial good for skin tones contrasts and brilliant flowers.
Similar pastel colors on various background colors.
Using a darker background helps for the bright sunlight illumination on the flowers below.  Note that all of the pastel values are either lighter or darker that the background value.
Prince Maximilian Sunflower from our garden
Experimenting with various materials will open new ideas and means of expression for your work.

Sunday, August 12, 2012

Show Time

The amount of time, planning and work to put an exhibit together was surprising.  When the work is in the frames, there is still a lot of administrative work to do. The gallery requires a list of each piece, its title, size, medium and price. Each piece requires an attached number to match the list. Also individual labels are needed to mount under each piece. A handout of a price list and a short bio is also suggested.

When the space became available, the 32 pieces needed to be delivered to the gallery.  Fortunately, the Prius was just large enough with the back seat dropped down.

The work was moved out of the car and into a holding area until we could notify the administrators that we were ready to hang the exhibit.

From there they were placed in the exhibit areas for sequencing and spacing.

Then the easiest part was just hanging the work.

Lastly, checking that everything was straight and level.

After this the labels were stuck under each piece then Beth and I took a final walk through to see if there were any changes to be made.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

At the opening, about forty people showed up to view the work and share in the wine and hor d-oeuvres.  The visitors were family, friends, friends of friends, visitors and a model.

This was a new and interesting experience and one that I am now prepared to repeat.  I still have volumes of work that have not yet been shown.

The exhibit will be open for viewing until the end of August.

Sunday, July 22, 2012

Artistic Family

About 11 years ago, some of our family and friends, all in the arts, would meet once a week in our studio for a drawing session.  We would hire a model and draw for about three hours in a relaxed and joyful atmosphere.  When the model was paid and left, we would open a bottle of wine and prepare dinner together.

It seemed rather sudden that the complexities and demands of life caught up to us all and we stopped meeting. Once in a while we talk about the memory of those times together. We are hoping to find the time to do it again someday.  We miss it.

Since then, the family has developed and now our talents include:
Artists: Jane and Maryann
Printmaker: Allesandra
Graphic Designer: Rudy
Fashion Designer: Anne
Industrial Designer: Xandy
Photographer: Beth
And myself.

We share knowledge, ideas and influences.  It is not surprising, therefore, that several of the grand-children are also inclined to draw and build models.  They enjoy using the studio once in a while but they are always doing things at home.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Only ten more days until we hang my work at the Gratia Gillespie Gallery at Atria Darien for the month of August.  The next post will be after the Opening Reception.

Saturday, July 7, 2012

A Gallery Exhibit

Usually when Beth and I have submitted work to an art exhibit, we were limited to two pieces each and require an entry fee for each piece to be judged.  We did this for years which resulted in a few sales.  There is a difference in a commercial gallery where the owner takes selected work for sale in the gallery.  Both Beth and I were represented in the Santo Gallery in Provincetown for many summers where sales were very good.

For clarification, Beth and I are married for 27 years.  She is a professional photographer with a masters degree.  We share a large photography and painting studio as well as a matting and framing workshop in our house.  She also has a separate office with the typical office equipment and I work in the studio.

This April I had an opportunity to have an exhibit.  In speaking to a member of the staff of Atria Darien about my work they asked to see some samples. So I gave them my website address at: to show examples of my work.  I was introduced to the Chairman of the Art Committee.  He told me about their Gratia Gillespie Art Galley at their site.  I invited him to see our studio.  Which he gladly accepted.

Briefly, my work was accepted and booked at the gallery for the month of August. This was very exciting news which lasted a few days until the realization of the preparation requirements of an exhibit arrived by mail in the form of the rules, requirements and legal forms.  We had several months to prepare the exhibit so the brief panic attack vanished as we started to plan the size, quantity, content and production required. I went to the exhibition area and measured the wall space.

Our first task was selecting the pieces for our new public audience. We stayed in the portraiture and landscape categories for our first major show. Beth who was at one time the co-owner of PhotoGraphics photography school and gallery in New Canaan for many years had presented two exhibits per month.   The work shown included famous photographers who presented their work for sale and educational purposes.  So Beth had been through exhibitions many times before.

First, we walked around our studio and noted the hanging, framed work on the walls that seemed appropriate.  Then I took two days emptying my flat file cabinet and sorting the work into categories and selecting additional pieces. The unframed selection was put into a large portfolio folder. 

I reviewed the folder contents every few days and removed pieces that I did not feel belonged in this show.  Then I had some very old friends who were architects and artists with similar esthetics look through the selection and make their comments.  I made mental notes of these. And finally, I asked Beth to have a look at the folder from her point of view with her knowledge and experience with exhibits.

From these trusted comments, I made the final selection and set about listing the name of the piece, image size and medium.  From the unframed pieces I also estimated the over matte size to determine the required frame size.  Of the thirty-one selected pieces, seventeen required new mattes and frames.  Since Beth is an experienced matte cutter I reviewed this list with her.  We have a framing setup in our workshop with two matte cutters, one of which is a professional wall mounted model.  We also discussed the material of the frames.

Partial panorama of the Workshop

With a list of required frames and matte board in hand I went to our local art store.  I showed the list to the manager and asked for a discount on the bulk purchase which was granted. Even at the reduced prices the cost was just over $600.  But I rationalize that whatever sales happen at this exhibit, or not, I have a show, framed and ready to go to another gallery.

Working as a team we finished matting and framing on July 5th.  At the beginning of next month we will take all of the work, tool kit, etc. and sequence the show in the gallery before hanging it.

We will follow up the actual exhibit in a future blog.

Monday, June 25, 2012

Painting Surfaces

In 1956 a group of us went out on a class session near the Stamford Reservoir where our teacher, Alfred J. Tulk, had selected a yellow house for us to paint (make a painting of).  We all had our folding wood tripod, paint box and a Fredrix canvas board. This canvas board was a cardboard core wrapped in primed canvas.  There was no discussion about archival boards back then for our work.

However this painting has lasted 56 years, and counting, without any signs of deterioration. The label glued on the back fell off years ago. This was my introduction to painting surfaces and my regular painting surface for a few more years.

Pio was my nickname.  A very long story. Don't ask
In the painting courses at college, the teacher wanted us all to loosen up and use large painting surfaces. Large being around 48" x 36". Of course stretched canvas was not in our student supplies budget so the school offered alternative materials at very reasonable cost.  Sometimes we had untempered Masonite. These were all available through the local lumber yard and furnished to the school at reasonable prices. They were primed using white house paint applied with a paint roller. Our concern was definitely not longevity. At times the work was over-painted with a roller and reused if it was nothing you felt was worth saving and usually this was the case back then.

The idea was to use a large brush, thinned out paint and use your entire arm with LARGE, studied, decisive strokes. That really changes the way you see the subject before you touch the painting surface.  I still do small study sketches with black and white Conte or pastel to see what I have.

Black and white values study on colored paper.
Once I had need of some non-standard size canvases which I had custom made through a New York supplier.  The linen and stretchers were absolutely first quality and were rather expensive as expected.  After that I tried to stay with standard size stretched canvases.  My work was 90% hobby and cost was an issue.  The difficulty with these inexpensive canvases is that some were made in countries that used the metric system and their 16" x 20" canvas did not exactly fit a pre-made 16" x 20" frame.  Drats.

Having learned to paint on a hard surface initially, I found the stretched canvas has a spongy quality to it.  So I re-investigated painting boards.  Some painting boards were more expensive than stretched canvas.  In my internet surfing I discovered RayMar brand with various canvas types mounted to a masonite panel with an additional gray melamine finish on the back. These are of archival quality in packages of ten. I also liked the fact that if I needed a non-standard size, I could cut the board with a sturdy utility knife and a steel edge.  How convenient.  I also use a very fine toothed blade in an electric hand saber saw (jig saw) with a fence guide for straight lines.  Since the blade cuts on the up stroke, I put the canvas face downwards for a really clean cut.

I continued using RayMar until I discovered that Fredrix started making an archival quality canvas wrapped Masonite board with the qualities that I was looking for.  Unlike RayMar, they were available at almost any outlet that carried Fredrix products.  Their price was also about a third less than RayMar. They are also sold in a package of ten boards.  They can also be cut down to any size you like as well.

Remember that you can also do oil sketches and studies on sized paper. See the post of February 12, 2012 for details.

Thursday, June 14, 2012


In 1952 I was in the Boy Scouts, and working for a Merit Badge dealing with birds.  My father surprised me one day with a small set of Winsor & Newton watercolor pans.  I recall a Scarlet Tanager that I painted with Vermillion on a 3" x 5" index card.  Now this was something special.  Watercolors have been in my studio since that time.  There is something amazing about the flow of the liquid which is very exciting.

For architectural renderings in school, I selected line drawings with a watercolor wash as my preferred representation.  The lines were either pencil or ink.  I liked the results so well that I have been using the technique for over fifty years.

Pencil drawing with watercolor. The original is 13" x 9" and from the early 1990's.
During the summer of 2003, I was recuperating from Lyme disease and on an I.V. every day.  I spent most of the summer painting indoors.  However, Beth went into our extensive garden, where I probably got the Lyme, and brought in flower cuttings for subject material. 

Ink lines with watercolor. Garden flowers. 8" x 6.5"

Watercolors come in three basic forms: dry cakes, tubes and liquid.  For my usage I prefer tubes because I get a lot more color in one purchase.  This is important for me as grandchildren who visit the studio to make Valentine's Day cards can consume an entire cake of red color in one sitting.  With the tube supply, I just squeeze out a little more onto the palette tray and the work continues.  The unused portion is left to dry and can be easily activated for use with a few drops of water. Mold can grow on damp, covered paint.  I only use the cover for the tray when the paint is completely dry to protect the colors from dust and foreign particles.

A note about color layout on my pallet whether it is watercolor or oils.  From the upper left moving clockwise blue, green, yellow, orange, red, violet.  Some time I add the earth colors in the orange family and depending on the pallet size, or  sometimes they come after the violets and other pure colors.

For scale of this photograph, the tubes are the half ounce size which is 3" in length.
The above tray is what I usually use for average size paintings.
This is the Kremer box with 14 full size snap in pans and room for two brushes.

This is the box spread out for work. There is a lot of mixing areas.
Snap out pans are shown removed for illustration.

Rather large graphic study for a commercial client.
The color is straight out of the tube and onto the dinner plate and thinned with water.
The brush is a number 10 Da Vinci quill. See post from Feb. 21, 2012 for a brush photo.

Over the years I slowly acquired Winsor & Newton Series 7 finest sable brushes in varying sizes up to a number 8.  Larger sable brushes get to be rather expensive, especially today.  Many of my sable brushes were purchased years ago.  Synthetics have become acceptable in their quality and budget.

My favorite paper is Strathmore 640 gsm, cold pressed, sized, watercolor paper.  It is thick enough that is does not warp or buckle. I always lay the paper on a level, flat surface for the best control of the liquid. 

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

If you have a technical interest in the composition of tube watercolor, this illustration will show the complexities of the modern product.  The image is from the site Handprint by Bruce MacEvoy.  Handprint is the finest guide to watercolors.  It truly is the most extensive and detailed work on the subject and an excellent reference source.

Friday, June 1, 2012

Studio Set Up

In the studio, I have an 18" x 32" taboret which originally was sold as a buffet serving table.  The top slides back 3/4 of the way revealing a storage area.  We bought it over twenty years ago as a diaper changing table in the bathroom.  After the need for diapers vanished, I eventually took it into the studio and adopted it as my taboret for supplies and tools.

I dislike holding a traditional pallet so I bought a 16" x 30" sheet of safety glass which is about 1/4" thick made up of two sheets of glass bonded to an internal core of plastic.  The construction of safety glass is such that if it breaks, the shards of glass will remain attached to the plastic core. The corners and edges were ground smooth and I painted the back of the glass with a middle gray spray paint.  The gray is close to the standard Kodak middle gray sample sheet, but not an exact match. I like a gray pallet to better be able to distinguish the color values.

About half of the glass surface is used for mixing paint and the rest for color tubes, brushes and pallet knife in use.  Also there is a small bottle of Galkyd Painting Medium mixed with odorless mineral spirits.

On the bottom shelf are the pastel boxes and the PanPastels. 

The sliding top opens and stores painting supplies.

If the pallet will be open to the air for a long time, I clean off the mixing area of the pallet with a pallet knife or razor scraper. Cover the globs of oil paint remaining with plastic wrap which clings nicely to the glass making an air tight seal. 

Allway makes a glass scraper with a slide that moves a single edge razor blade in and out.  The blade "cuts" the oil residue off of glass and only glass.  Use a light touch as the razor blade is harder than the glass and can scratch it. It is great for removing dried paints.
Allway glass scraper about $3 in many hardware stores.
To finish the job, use the denatured alcohol and a paper towel. Denatured alcohol is powerful stuff and not being a chemist I'm guessing that it breaks down the composition of the oil binder in the colors.  Watch where it goes.  Maintain adequate ventilation.  It is very combustible and the vapors are dangerous.

Some of these tips come from Richard Schmid, who has much knowledge to share in his books and videos.  I ran across him around 1998 - 99 on the internet and bought his book, Alla Prima, Everything I Know About Painting in 2000.  Subsequently, I bought one of his DVD,s and borrowed another from a friend. 

Moveable furniture allows for converting the use of the space for photography.
I am retired and working in a large well lit studio.  If someday I must live in a more confining housing situation, I would be willing to abandon the oil colors, pastels, and everything that goes with them. I could take a traveling watercolor box and a few sable brushes. I would only need a few square feet of table top temporarily and a small box for all of my supplies.  Cleaning up afterward only requires rinsing out of the brushes and letting everything dry. Finished. 

See the next post on Watercolors. 

Tuesday, May 22, 2012

More on FastMatte Oil Colors

On February 5, 2012, I put up a post called Oil colors and drying time - Part 2 - Solutions in which I mentioned that Gamblin Oil Colors had a recent release of FastMatte, a quick drying oil color which has a matte finish as it is originally intended for under-paintings.  My preference is using it as the finished surface.

Some asked about the formula to create the fast drying and matte finish mixture to add to regular oil colors as mentioned in the February post.

The formula is 50% by weight of each of these: Gamblin Galkyd Gel and Gamblin Dry Pigment "Whiting". 

Also get empty paint tubes to put the mixture into as the quantity that you mix will dry rather fast in the open air.  By the next morning the mixture will be either dry or very rubbery depending upon the volume exposed.

Gamblin Galkyd Gel Link
Gamblin Artist's Colors Dry Pigment Link
To make FastMatte and the Formula more fluid for under-painting techniques, thin it with a 50/50 mixture of Gamblin Galkyd Painting Medium and Gamblin Gamsol Odorless Mineral Spirits. Moderate use of this mixture ensures the adhesion of thinner paint applications while maintaining the matte surface quality.

In the February post I mentioned that there were more colors of FastMatte coming out later this year.  Here is the list of colors which do contain my preferred palette and  a few special colors that I just love to add. Click here.

Saturday, May 12, 2012

PanPastel - A Pastel Powder

In late 2007, I came across PanPastel as a newly marketed material on the web.  The "pan" of the product is a 2.375" plastic "Petri" type dish with a cover.  It is filled with a compressed powdered pastel pigment without the binders required to make a pastel stick.
This image reminds me of my mother's rouge compact from the 1945 era.  Her face powder was also packaged like this.  Cosmetic companies today use a blend of silicone compounds as a medium for pressed powders.  There is no published information from PanPastel about their formulation of a pressing compound, not that you want to go through the problems of making your own.  

Autumn in the town park woods.  PanPastels with detail in pastel pencil.

In experimenting with PanPastels, a small scraping of the pan powder into a small mixing container, when stirred with with a small amount of denatured alcohol, will result in a smooth paste.  Adding drops of alcohol for the right consistency, it can be applied with a brush.  The alcohol evaporates quickly. Probably, the pastel pencils can now be set aside for fine details.

The best and recommended tool for applying the pastel is using the foam tipped Sofft Tools from the same company. Sofft tools are small foam sleeves which slide over plastic knives in four basic shapes.  I like to hold them as a pallet knife.  There are assorted foam blocks for filling in large areas in a jiffy.  Below is a package of the entire line of foam Sofft tools.

There are the 80 colors at this LINK.  If you are a painter and are accustomed to mixing colors you will not need 80 colors.  Like a painter's pallet, you only need your basic mass tones, a few more favorite colors, plus black and white to mix most of the colors that you need. 

When I was testing the product, I got a set of black, white and grays to play with.  I then added basic colors to work with.  I did not like screwing the caps on and off so I converted an old pastel box into a case for the individual colors with no caps.  The seal was the bubble wrap fixed to the top lid.  Later on, I added a few more colors that I just had to have.
From 02/2008.  This was a lot of work to build.

PanPastel now makes plastic trays for either 10 or 20 pans in an easier, lighter and more economical material. Covers are included. (No construction required.)

I also experimented with various types of paper.  Categorically I dislike the sandy textured papers as they chew up the foam tips.  The PanPastels themselves adhere well to smooth paper.  Strathmore Bristol Vellum is a very good choice.  I also like Canson Mi-Teintes on the smoother of the two sides.
Female Athlete. Notice highlights accentuated with an eraser.
Monochrome PanPastel on Bristol,vellum finish.  Fine details are pastel pencil.
Additional samples of my work is on exhibit at the PanPastel Gallery under portraits and landscapes, as well as samples of other artist.